The vast scale of online surveillance revealed by Edward Snowden is leading to the breakup of the Internet as countries scramble to protect private or commercially sensitive emails and phone records from U.K. and U.S. security services, according to experts and academics.

They say moves by countries, such as Brazil and Germany, to encourage regional online traffic to be routed locally rather than through the U.S. are likely to be the first steps in a fundamental shift in the way the internet works. The change could potentially hinder economic growth.

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